Agreement Troubles

The participants in the agreement were composed of two sovereign states (the United Kingdom and the Republic of Ireland), with armed forces and police forces involved in the riots. Two political parties, Sinn Féin and the Progressive Unionist Party (PUP), were linked to paramilitary organisations: the IRA (Commissional Irish Republican Army) and the Ulster Volunteer Force (UVF). The Ulster Democratic Party (UDP), associated with the Ulster Defence Association (UDA), had withdrawn from the talks three months earlier. This conference takes the form of regular and frequent meetings between The British and Irish ministers to promote cooperation between the two governments at all levels. On issues not left to Northern Ireland, the Irish government can present views and proposals. All decisions of the Conference are taken by mutual agreement between the two governments and the two governments, in order to make resolute efforts to resolve the differences between them. In addition to the number of signatories [Note 1], Stefan Wolff identifies the following similarities and differences between the themes discussed in the two agreements:[28] In an important compromise, the parties agreed on measures to promote the Irish language, which trade unionists have long held against the reluctance to increase nationalist and republican culture to the detriment of their own. In return, the agreement contained provisions to promote Ulster-Scots, traditionally spoken by descendants of Protestants from Scotland to Northern Ireland. Negotiations were also reinforced by commitments in Dublin and London for increased funding for hospitals, schools and other social services in Northern Ireland. These talks, negotiated by former US Senator George Mitchell, resulted in the Good Friday Agreement (Belfast Agreement) reached on 10 April 1998. This pioneering agreement provided for the creation of a power-sharing Northern Ireland Assembly, established an institutional agreement for cross-border cooperation between the Irish and Irish governments on a number of issues, and laid the groundwork for further consultations between the British and Irish governments.

On 22 May, Ireland and Northern Ireland held a joint referendum on the agreement, approved by 94% of the Republic`s voters and 71% of Northern Ireland voters, where Catholic support for the agreement (96%) was much higher than that of Protestants (52%). Nevertheless, it was an IRA dissident group, the Real Irish Republican Army, that dramatically violated the spirit of the agreement, with a bomb attack in Omagh in August that claimed the lives of 29 people. The vague wording of some so-called “constructive ambiguities”[8] helped ensure the adoption of the agreement and delayed debate on some of the most controversial issues. These include extra-military dismantling, police reform and the standardisation of Northern Ireland. She said the agreement could “evolve” in the EU context. The Good Friday Agreement was signed on April 10, 1998. This was the culmination of discussions between the Unionist parties, the political wings of the UVF and the UDA, the Sinn Fien and the British government. The agreement established a power-sharing plan in Northern Ireland and outlined plans for future relations between Ireland and Great Britain. It was adopted the following month by referendum in Northern Ireland and Ireland.

The elections were held in June and officially took power in December 1999. On Friday, April 10, 1998, at 5:30 p.m., an American politician named George Mitchell, who led the talks, said: “I am pleased to announce that the two governments and political parties in Northern Ireland have reached an agreement.” The two main political parties in the agreement were the Ulster Unionist Party (UUP), led by David Trimble, and the Social Democratic and Labour Party (SDLP), led by John Hume.

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